The works of an Anthropologist
Who is an anthropologist and what do they do? The anthropologist studies the origin, development and functioning of human societies and cultures and of human evolution, changing physical characteristics and geographical distribution. The results of the anthropologist’s work are used in medicine, criminology, archaeology, museology, but also in industry and social work. Physical anthropologists examine the physical differences between people, the origins and development of human populations as biological individuals. They may also be known as anthropometrists or medical anthropologists; social anthropologists focus more on cultural and social factors, gathering and analysing data on social customs and artifacts. Some focus particularly on language and culture and are known as anthropological linguists, others on psychological issues (relationship between individual psychology and culture, or apply anthropological techniques to the study of present day urban societies and human relations.
What are the activities of the job? The variation in the bodily structure of humans has its laws, which depend also on external conditions and the way of life of people and their ancestors. Based on the analysis of biological materials of human origin (for instance bones, hair, tissues) an anthropologist determines, at which stage of biological development are or were people inhabiting a particular territory in a particular historical period. This biological anthropology forms part of the natural sciences; cultural and ethnic anthropology on the other hand is very close to archaeology, but also to sociology, psychology or medicine. Social anthropology applies the data and techniques to solving current social problems such as ethnic, transcultural or industrial relations, education, public health.
Where is it done and under what conditions? Either as a field work, sometimes involving long periods away from home, or in a university, public institute or scientific laboratory.
Where is it done and under what conditions? Anthropologists may find job opportunities, depending on their particular specialisation, in the health service, in the criminologists’ practice, at various scientific research institutions (archaeological research, research into ethnic and cultural anthropology and other institutions focused on research into the biology and culture and social relations of human beings), in museology, in top sports training centres and so on.
What tools/equipment do they use? Anthropometric tools, diagnostic equipment, information technology, morphological, biochemical, physical and biophysical methods and equipment. Notebooks and communications media.